2013 Meeting Reviews-ABBPAST
January: "Un-earthing a Dartmoor Copper Mine"
Our speaker for the January meeting was Ian Howes. Ian formerly taught history at Knowles Hill School in Newton Abbot, and used all his skills to deliver an outstanding talk on a project obviously very close to his heart.
A number of years ago Paul Heatley, a book shop owner from Ashburton, bought some woodland to be able to enjoy the environment that it provided. In addition to the trees and wildlife, was an old copper mine. Ian was invited to look into history of the mine, and using Time Team as his guide, that is exactly what he did.
The Druid Mine was constructed in the mid-1850s and today the remains of an engine and boiler house, chimney and its shaft are clearly visible. Ian set himself four objectives: to explore, to research, to illustrate and to present the mine. In a fascinating talk he explained how he completed the first three and delivered the fourth to us. The outer rim of Dartmoor had dozens of mines, of a various kinds, and close to Ashburton were a good number of copper mines. Druid Mine had six companies that tried to make it profitable, all failing it would appear.
Ian showed us what the site looks like today, as well as producing some amazing reconstructions that he has created; the ‘then & now’ pictures above are examples of this. His research produced maps which revealed a reservoir, wheel pits, and crushing house, which he then found on the ground. He discovered contemporary photographs and postcards, showing the mine working and also revealing that the south side of the engine house had a Palladian façade, which is possibly a unique feature. Between 1852 and 1878 the mine only appeared to produce small amounts of ore and certainly did not make the owners any money.
Ian’s passion for his project shone through, with an excellent delivery that delighted those present.
For our February meeting we were very fortunate to have Rich Gibby as our speaker. Rich is a former RAF pilot who flew in Tornadoes in 1990s and 2000s, and joined the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight (BBMF) as a volunteer during his last three years in the service.
Having flown as a navigator in Sea King helicopters in the Royal Navy in 1980s Rich switched to the RAF to fulfill his dream of flying jets. After a career in the ground attack variant of the Tornado he became an air instructor and this earned him his prestigious place in the BBMF.
Rich described how the Historic Aircraft Flight began with three Spitfires and a Hurricane in 1957 before becoming the BBMF in 1973. Today it has six Spitfires, including the only flying one that took part in the Battle of Britain (a Mark IIA), 2 Hurricanes (one being the last of over 14000 built), a Dakota and a Lancaster bomber (there are only two left flying in the world).
His obvious passion for both the Flight and its planes were clear to us all; he frequently talked of “these beautiful planes” or the “fabulous experience” of flying in them; he is immensely proud to have been part of the BBMF. He emphasized its mission statement: “To increase awareness of the sacrifice made in previous and current conflicts to ensure the freedom afforded by our generations.”
In his final year he was able to hand pick his flights and he told us the story of being part of the 70th Anniversary fly past of the D Day celebrations, with the Queen, Presidents Obama and Putin watching at Bayeux. The problem was the weather, which was wet and windy which meant the tail light planes could not take off from Le Harve; after a great deal of phoning they persuaded Caen Airport to take the fighters and Jersey Airport to take the bombers. So the guests saw their fly past, as did a rededication for the graves of a Lancaster bomb crew on the route.
This fascinating talk related the development and deployment of the tank in the First World War. It covered not only the technical aspects but also gave some understanding of the vision of the men who developed these machines and, also, the bravery and skill of those who crewed them. What was also interesting, was an insight into the political, logistical and procurement issues involved in getting them into battle. Not everyone was a fan, especially Lord Kitchener, who described them as “A toy, of little military value”.
Much of the early development of armoured vehicles had been carried out by the Royal Navy, with the encouragement of Winston Churchill, the First Sea Lord. Many of the engineering and gunnery skills required, were already employed in warships. However, the conditions on the Western Front proved to be too much for these wheeled armoured cars and the use of commercial caterpillar tractors was investigated.
After a great deal of experimentation and trials, orders were placed with British agricultural machinery firm, Foster and Sons, whose managing director and designer was Sir William Tritton, who was responsible for much of the design and engineering.
Crews were found from the recently formed Machine Gun Corps and officers were recruited from other units, based on their bravery and technical skills. A crew of eight was commanded by a subaltern and conditions inside were uncomfortable and dangerous.
The development and deployment of these vehicles became a difficult secret to keep. For security reasons, as the unfinished product resembled a large water receptacle, various names were suggested such as “boiler” or “cistern”. Eventually they decided on “tank”. Sir Andrew said that he was glad of this, since he would not like to have been commissioned into “The Royal Cistern Regiment”.
The first offensive using tanks took place on 15 September 1916, during the Battle of the Somme and later Ypres. But it was not until 20 November 1917, at Cambrai, that the British Tank Corps get the conditions it needed for success. Over 400 tanks penetrated almost six miles on a 7-mile wide front. However, success was not complete, because the infantry were unable to exploit and secure the tanks' gains. The British scored a far more significant victory the following year, on 8 August 1918, with 600 tanks in the Battle of Amiens. General Erich Ludendorff referred to that date as the "Black Day" of the German Army.
We were told of “Deborah” a Mark IV tank and casualty of the Battle of Cambrai. She was rediscovered and excavated in 1998 and is now designated as a national memorial in France. We were shown and invited to examine a small, but very heavy section of her armour plate and told the story of her preservation.
The interest in this talk was reflected by the number of questions from the members and we are very grateful to General Sir Andrew for his visit.
April: "Raleigh & the Gilberts of Compton and Greenaway"
May: Kents Cavern & the English Riviera UNESCO Global Geopark
Our speaker for the May meeting was Nick Powe, who is the owner of Kents Cavern, and the man behind Torbay becoming the only the Global Geopark in England. His great grandfather was the foreman on the original archaeological ‘Great Excavation’ by William Pengelly between 1865 – 1880. His grandfather, Francis, bought the caves and the family has run them ever since.
Nick’s talk first focused on the geology of Torbay, explaining that three key ages are represented in the area: these are the Devonian, Permian and Quaternary. It was in the last of these the caves were used by animals and humans to shelter during the ice ages.
The caves are known as ‘Britain’s Oldest Home’ as the remains of their habitation, the oldest from 430,000 years ago, are the oldest human bones yet found in north west Europe. When first excavated by Father John MacEnery in the early 19th century his ideas of animal and human occupation were dismissed, but he was later to be proved correct as the layer of silt below the last ice age shelf contained flint axes and arrowheads, and the bones of animals such as wolves, mammoths and sabre toothed tigers. Later work found a second shelf this time from the ice age of 430,000 years ago, with bones beneath it.
During Nick’s pacey, clever and witty talk he referred to the kinds of questions frequently asked to describe the caves: eg it is not known why they are called Kents Cavern (he favours from the word ‘Kentis’ meaning rock shelf), they were not discovered as they found Roman coins inside and the oldest inscription on the walls is from 1571. The caves system is unique because they have found the remains of three different species of humans in the same place, hence its listing as an Ancient Monument and a Site of Special Scientific Interest.
In 2000, when Nick’s grandfather gave up running the caves at the age of 86, he invited his grandson to take over; at the time he was working for Nestle’s pet food division as a financial controller so it was a major decision to bring his family back to Torbay. His enthusiasm for geology and the importance of the Cavern shone through in an excellent talk.
Our speaker for the June meeting was AbbPast committee member Felicity House, who visited a topic dear to her heart, from her young days as a teacher in the Leeds area. In Farlsey the Hainsworth Family have been active in the textiles for over 400 years and Felicity described their rise from ‘Old Bim’ in 1783, until the present day.
Felicity showed the members a montage of 12 apparently unrelated people and events, explaining that each would feature in the Hainsworth story. It was a lovely story of the Industrial Revolution, showing how the woollen industry developed into a huge employer in the Borough of Pudsey.
‘Old Bim’ (short for Abimelech) Hainsworth began as a cloth merchant and began using the local home-based hand loom weavers to create his company. The water powered mills of the area, such as Cape Mill and Spring Valley Mill, pictured above, were constructed. As sons followed fathers and daughters married local merchants the business grew; their red uniform cloth was used in the Crimean War, the move to khaki for the army in the Boer War was made possible by their research and production, and the original RAF blue uniform came from the firm.
The company provided special uniform cloth for Queen Elizabeth’s Coronation as well as regalia cloth used on the Woolsack and the scarlet material used by the Royal Family. A major flood in 1955 meant Hainsworth could re-equip and now is a modern wool producer still based in Farsley.
Felicity had used her knowledge of the area, and added extensive research to create this talk, which was greatly appreciated by the members, with its detail of a fascinating company, who most people would never have heard of, but who had been involved in so many major events.
July: 3000 years of History from the Sea - The Salcombe Wrecks
Our speaker for the July meeting was the Secretary of the South West Marine Archaeology Group, Ron Howell, and what an amazing talk he gave; it is not exaggerating to say that the AbbPast members were spell bound by his story.
In 1989 a group of Northampton divers visited the Erme Estuary and discovered an unknown wreck that produced a number of interesting finds, including cannons. They formed themselves into the South West Marine Archaeological Group and have been together ever since. A second find produced Roman tin ingots, which won the group the Duke of Edinburgh Gold Medal, and the first of four visits to Buckingham Palace.
In 1995 the weather so poor in the Erme Estuary that they decided to try their luck in the sea off Salcombe, and the rest as they say is history. Almost immediately they found gold coins and jewellery scattered on the seabed; these proved to be of Islamic origin, dating from around 1630. The wreck created huge media interest and soon the British Museum were holding an exhibition and SWMAG became famous. There have been various ideas on what the ship was; a Barbary pirate ship and a Dutch merchant vessel being two of them. Despite being offered £2m for the gold the marine rules forced them to sell the haul to the British Museum for £100k.
Remarkably in 2003 they discovered another wreck close by and this turned out to be even more remarkable as it was a Bronze Age vessel that was carrying bronze axes, swords, gold bracelets and a tiny bronze figure that proved to be from Sicily. This meant the wreck became the first proof of trade between Britain and the Mediterranean in the Bronze Age. Later they found the first copper ingots ever discovered in a British wreck.
The sheer excitement of Ron’s story was quite amazing and as his group’s story unfolded the audience was totally transfixed, culminating when he produced one of the original gold coins that he had brought up from the seabed in 1995; what a story.
September: Sabine Baring-Gould
Our speaker for the September meeting was Bob Mann, who is a publisher and performer from Totnes, whose great passion is the life and work of Rev. Baring-Gould. Bob described him as a “creative artist and an individual”. He was from Lew Trenchard in Devon and would spend his life writing a huge number of publications on all manner of topics; he is perhaps most well known as the composer of the lyrics of Onward Christian Soldiers.
Bob explained to the meeting that Sabine (pronoun-ced Sabiene) was an Anglican priest, hagiographer, antiquarian, novelist, folk song collector and eclectic scholar. His bibliography consists of more than 1240 publications. Born into a family of landed gentry his first 10 years were spent travelling around Europe with his parents, he did not have a formal education. Against his father’s wishes he entered the church and became a vicar at Horbury Bridge in Yorkshire where he met a 15 year mill girl and had here educated to become his wife; they had 15 children.
His first book in 1860 was ‘A Trip to Iceland’, which was a country few visitors travelled to, was written when in Yorkshire, as was Onward Christian Soldiers. After a spell in Essex where he wrote his first novel Mehalah, he inherited his father’s estate and took the living at Lew Trenchard. His writing was a way to earn money, since little came from his estate, and he would write for hours stood up at his desk. He also set out to collect hundreds of folk songs from the local Devon men; he always sought the oldest to capture old songs believing these men to be the heirs of medieval minstrels.
Bob’s enthusiasm for all things Baring-Gould was evident to the members, who appreciated his knowledge and depth of understanding for such a complex individual, and one with such a breadth of work to call upon. He read Baring-Gould’s description of Abbotskerswell, which was not complementary of the church’s renovation. Bob also showed us Rebecca Tope’s new biography of Sabine.
October: Newton Abbot's Railway History 1846 to the Present Day
This story really began on 30th December 1846 with the opening of the Bristol – Exeter Railways extension to Newton Abbot; on that day a railway town was born. Engineered by I K Brunel, it became the South Devon Railway, as the tracks went on to Plymouth shortly afterwards. The failure of Brunel’s atmospheric propulsion system meant that the Broad Gauge line, the tracks were 7’ 0¼” apart, would see steam locomotives hauling trains up the steep South Devon banks. How many of you remember the loco ‘Tiny’ that was the last example of a broad gauge one, that used to be on the station platform until 1980?
The station has had three different phases. The first had two different ‘train sheds’ (as stations were known then), an up and a down one and were staggered along the line. When the extensions to Kingswear and Moretonhampstead were added the station soon could not cope, and was therefore rebuilt in 1861, with a single train shed and 400 foot long platforms. At the same time 150 houses were built, showing how important the railway was becoming to the town. Other things changed in the coming years, with Newton Junction station becoming Newton Abbot and the broad gauge being replaced in 1892. By 1905 yet another station rebuild was planned, although it took until 1927 for the present station to be completed. By then 25% of the town’s working population was employed at the station, or in the shed and works.
By the 1950s the shed had 75 steam locomotives allocated to it and 150 passenger trains and 85 freight trains would pass through the town in a day. However, the 1960s brought change, the steam locomotives being replaced by diesels, the works and sheds slowly wound down, and were finally closed in 1973. The 1980s saw a remodelling of the track layout in the station, with two lines taken out, new signals and big car parks added.
Using many of his own photographs Alan showed the changes, as well as a number of the accidents as well. His enthusiasm for a topic dear to his heart was evident and the packed audience enjoyed a splendid evening.
November: "Fieldwork and Excavations at Ipplepen 2007-2017"
Our speaker for the November meeting was Exeter University archaeology lecturer and author, Derek Gore. Roman expert Derek has been a speaker at our meetings on a number of occasion, and this was a much anticipated event, which brought a number of visitors from Ipplepen and Denbury.
The site is on the left hand side of the Totnes Road, above Ipplepen and the story of the Roman excavation begins in 2007 when a farmer wanted to put up a barn; he was required to have an archaeological survey on the site and this produced Roman finds. A slate quarry containing Roman pottery sherds, a coin, bone and charcoal were all unearthed. Thankfully the landowner agreed to a dig, and the rest is history!
By 2009 a geophysical survey of the site had been conducted and a number of features emerged. Also around that time a local metal detector found a hoard of Roman coins which interested the British Museum and Exeter University. 150 coins have been unearthed on the site, ranging from 100BC to 300AD. In 2011 a series of small trenches were dug and a Roman road and the site of timbered buildings discovered. In 2012 a larger excavation, on the south side of the site revealed an Iron Age hut, in fact the site has material from the Neolithic period through to the early Middle Ages. The 2013 dig uncovered a large section of the road, showing it to be 3.65 metres wide and had four different levels; it was almost certainly originally built by the Roman Army, and contained the top of an amphora dating from 43-70AD.
The site has also revealed 37 graves, since in the Roman period people were buried on roadsides, so people could see the graves and remember the people. Wells, rubbish pits, evidence of smelting and high quality pottery all suggest that this is an unusual site, and almost certainly a town of around 23 acres, rather than the usual one family farmstead. Artefacts found include brooches, coins and the daub from the buildings. Unfortunately the land has passed to a new owner who is less enthusiastic about the digs, but in 2017 he wanted to put up a stable, so had to agree to excavations which revealed another Iron Age hut and an incredibly rare piece of pottery.
The future of digs on the site is uncertain, but Derek showed us a fascinating story in his usual knowledgeable and excited manner.
December: "Coffers, Clysters, Comfrey & Coifs: the lives of our 17th Century Ancestors"
This was a new departure for AbbPast, with a costumed interactive presentation on life in 17th century Britain. Mulled wine, sausage rolls and mince pies preceded Swords and Spindles’ presentation, which proved to lively, informative and funny. There were many everyday expressions explained, such as the ‘upper crust’ rich, because they ate the top of the loaf, whereas the poor got the burnt bottom crust. We were taken through the details of a household, complete with a member being dressed to show what a working girl would have worn; from shift to coif (bonnet). She had her bodice laced up with a criss-crossed design as the lacing across, favoured by the puritans, provided the ‘straight laced’ pattern to show proper behaviour of religious young ladies. We also learnt about the herbal medicines that were used and also how they were used to make the food less bland and boring. Most working people ate pottage, a stew which had anything put into it .
For the last meeting of the year the members really were given a treat, in more ways than one.
January: "AGM & The New Newton Abbot Museum"
February: "The Great Blizzard of 1891"
March: "Here's a Howdy Do- Coleton Fishacres & the D'Oyly Carte"
January: "Mutiny, Mobs and Mayhem 1793-1867:
was Devon on the brink of revolution ?"
February: "The Lost Mine of Landscove and the Lost Canal at Littlehempston"
March: "Devon Place Names"
April: "The Aller Vale Pottery"
May: "Roman Devon"
June: "The Code Breakers of Bletchley Park"
July: "The German Refugees who Fought for Britain in WW2"
August: "The Coming of the Railways"
September: "All the way from France"
October: "Slavery in Devon"
November: "Photographing Torquay in 1850 - 1870"
December: "Members Quiz Night"